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ISBN 9781138058170

Football supporters and the commercialisation of football

comparative responses across Europe







Resumo (outro idioma)

As football clubs have become luxury investments, their decisions increasingly mirror those of any other business organisation. Football supporters have been encouraged to express their club loyalty by ‘thinking business’ - acting as consumers and generating money deemed necessary for their clubs to compete at the highest levels. In critical studies, supporters have been portrayed as passive or reluctant consumers who, imprisoned by enduring club loyalties, embody a fatalistic attitude to their own exploitation. As this book aims to show, however, such expressions of loyalty are far from hegemonic and often interface haphazardly with traditional ideas about what constitutes the ‘loyal fan’. While there is little doubt that professional football is experiencing commodification, the reality is that football clubs are not simply businesses, nor can they ever aspire to be organisations driven solely by expanding or protecting economic value. Rather, clubs hover uncertainly between being businesses and community assets.

Football Supporters and the Commercialisation of Football explores the implications of this uncertainty for understanding supporter resistance to, and compromise with, commodification. Every club and its supporters exist in their own unique national and local contexts. In this respect, this book offers a Euro-wide comparison of supporter reactions to commercialisation and provides unique insight into how football supporters actively mediate regional, local and national contexts, as they intersect with the universalistic presumptions of commerce.

This book was previously published as a special issue of Soccer and Society.


1. Football supporters and the commercialisation of football: comparative responses across Europe 
Peter Kennedy and David Kennedy 

2. Football stadium relocation and the commodification of football: the case of Everton supporters and their adoption of the language of commerce 
David Kennedy 

3. Football fans and clubs in Germany: conflicts, crises and compromises 
Udo Merkel 

4. Split loyalties: football is a community business 
Hans K. Hognestad 

5. From ‘socios’ to ‘hyper-consumers’: an empirical examination of the impact of commodification on Spanish football fans 
Ramon Llopis-Goig

6. Supporters Direct and supporters’ governance of football: a model for Europe? 
Peter Kennedy 

7. Walking alone together the Liverpool Way: fan culture and ‘clueless’ Yanks 
John Williams 

8. From community to commodity: the commodification of football in Israel 
Amir Ben Porat


KENNEDY, Peter; KENNEDY, David. (Orgs.).Football supporters and the commercialisation of football: comparative responses across Europe. Londres: Routledge, 2013.