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ISSN 1468-4446

Beyond the racist/hooligan couplet: race, social theory and football culture


n. 3




v. 50


p. 367-542



This paper draws on recent research to explore the changing cultures of racism in English football. Starting from a critical analysis of key themes in the literature on football it seeks to show that existing analytical frameworks need to be reworked if they are going to adequately account for the complex forms through which racism is expressed in contemporary football cultures. In the course of this analysis we question some of the ways in which the issue of racism in football is collapsed into broader accounts of ‘hooliganism’ and other forms of violence among football fans. From this starting point the paper draws on some elements of our empirical research in order to outline an alternative way of framing the issues of racism and multiculturalism in football.

KEYWORDS:Football; racism; social theory


BACK, Les; CRABBE, Tim; SOLOMOS, John. Beyond the racist/hooligan couplet: race, social theory and football culture. The British Journal of Sociology. v. 50, n. 3, p. 367-542, 1999.

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